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> 達克效應:留言的都是甚麼人?
阿暪
發表於: Apr 5 2019, 15:27  評價+6
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此文所述的真是貼合現今社交媒體或各種網絡媒體中低質素留言的氾濫....  damn.gif

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https://simonshen.blog/2019/04/05/%E9%81%94...bDfZ1C0kbwBRiSc

達克效應:留言的都是甚麼人?

早前在個人專頁分享了「達克效應」這理論,網友反應熱烈,現實世界的朋友也無不會心微笑,因為這完全反映了我們的日常生活。但前瞻未來,在網絡演算式改造下的新世界,「效應」的發酵程度只會更嚴重,我們年前警告過的「微真相時代」,只會越演越烈。
所謂達克效應(Dunning-Kruger Effect),本來只是一個社會科學學者開玩笑的理論。Dunning和Kruger二人都是大學學者,他們在1999年通過問卷調查,先評估受訪者的硬知識、技能,再追蹤他們對自己答問水平的自我評估,發現知識程度越低的人,自我評估回答問題的水平越高、越以為無所不知,有一種建基於幻想的優越感;但知識程度越高的人,卻越是認為自己的回答不夠好,明白多言多敗,更傾向謹言。這調研反映的定律,其實「自古以來」皆有之,像達爾文說「無知比知識更能令人自信」,就很好的概括了人類這種生物的習性,後來被不同專業的人反覆論證,發現是一個「普世」現象,簡單而言,就是這樣一條曲線:

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(圖片:Source of Bias)
為什麼人類會有這樣的習性,涉及心理學、社會學、人類學、政治學等不同範疇,這堣ㄓ@一細述。而社會畢竟由庸眾組成,精英在古今中外,永遠只能是少數。到了網絡時代,人性反精英的一面,比從前發揮得更淋漓盡致,從網絡論壇、社交媒體公眾號的留言區,最能反映一二:絕大多數留言,不是毫無養份的情緒、立場宣洩與負能量,就是對內容斷章取義的理解與評論,對內容越不了解的人,越有勇氣發言,反而對內容有認知的人,則很少留言。
這首先是因為網絡世界的閱讀習慣,都是非脈絡化(decontextualized)的,網民的專注度以秒為單位,只看圖像、標題,根本不是為了了解資訊內容,而是無論看見甚麼,都是主觀地發洩自己的情緒與立場。這時代分享一篇文章時,大多數網民只會閱讀十多字的「小編按」,或當一個標題黨,就當作消化了全部,對題目真正有興趣討論的人,劣幣驅逐良幣,反而不會願意參與,頂多只會私訊。這就像在現實世界,一群專家遇見根據「達克效應」發言的庸眾,自然不會和他們較勁,只會、也只能一笑置之。
這種閱讀習慣,慢慢發展成一種網絡傳播「知識」的公式,網民只會關心旁枝末節,因為易懂,一幅照片最容易「看」的是有沒有走光,一片長文最容易「讀」的是hashtag有沒有串錯字或錯別字,又或能否從十個字的內容借題發揮、留言顯示自己才是看透世情的大師,因為這是「任何人」都能進入的門檻。至於消化文章的脈絡和思考,根本無助呃like,自然沒有市場。這是我們說過的「微真相時代」,慢慢需要發放、控制資訊流通和設定議題的人和機關,發現只需要製造、放大這樣的「討論焦點」,就能主導議題和討論方向。群眾看見的小樹苗比例上越來越大,森林明明就在眼前,卻越來越遙不可及。
再加上網絡演算式越來越個人化,機械學習的系統又只會模仿、放大每人的習性,假如一個人是達克效應的庸眾,只會在網絡遇見越來越多同質性強的「偽專家」,而在資訊發佈的留言部份,這樣的留言,又只會成為更顯眼的主流。結構出現了,那些通過機械人海量製造貌似不同、其實內容劃一的留言,技術已相當成熟,飲食、電影討論區的網絡打手,很多早已不是活人,近年連政治討論區也充滿殭屍留言,美國這方面的發展,則隨著特朗普的競選運動發揚光大。久而久之,達克效應的描述,在新時代變得更極端、更常見,而遺憾地,這是一條不歸路。
小詞典:達克效應(Dunning-Kruger Effect)
1999年,康內爾大學學者Dunning和Kruger通過研究人類閱讀、駕駛、下棋、打網球等有相對客觀基準的知識和技能,發現能力差的人通常會高估自己的技能水準、不能正確認識真專家的水平、不正視自身的不足,但一旦經過訓練,最終也會認知到之前的無能。這項研究被其他範疇的知識反覆核實,榮獲2000年「搞笑諾貝爾獎」。
信報財經新聞,2019年4月5日

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擔當生前事啊...何計身後評?

長江有意化作淚,長江有情起歌聲
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Pearltea
發表於: Apr 18 2019, 07:59  評價+1
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謝謝分享∼
看來大家的對這主題的內容太了解和知識程度非常高,就讓我這個對內容不了解的人來勇氣發言吧。(笑)

I guess I agree but also disagree with the author's arguments, and here are my 2 cents:

1. Comment section (new articles, social media posts) – I agree with the observation. Not to turn this into one millionth vent about how much I loathe reading comment sections, but I try to avoid them like the plague. I don't recall how much value I got out of people talking themselves into oblivion, rather than realizing that I wasted x minutes of my time on pointless rant, endless bickering, and tasteless jokes. Obviously there are valuable/reasonable comments out there, but they often don't show up because comments are displayed based on the highest number of "likes" and I don’t have the patience to scroll through another 10000 meaningless comments before reading them.

2. Dunning-Kruger Effect – I don't know, this seems a bit too much generalization here. I’d rather see two separate lines - perhaps one for people with self-awareness and one for those who have zero Fs to give? For the former group, I’d think it would be an upward slope as people in this group would understand that they don’t have much knowledge on certain topic, and therefore are fully aware of and acknowledge that.  But for the latter group, I don’t know if it needs to be a line or a curve, probably just a dot on the chart @ 100% confidence @ low competency LOL.  I’d think they are too content or confident and wouldn’t think they need to know more than what they already know.

Okay with all jokes aside, I would think that at low competency, the word "confidence" should be replaced by "ignorance" or "arrogance" instead. I know I’m playing with semantics here, but true confidence to me is the ability to recognize your level of knowledge/expertise in a specific area, and the courage to admit that you don’t know everything and there’s more for you to learn.  
If we do substitute the word "confidence" with the two I mentioned above, then it would be a downward slope, which also fits Einstein's argument of "Ego = 1/Knowledge"

3. Clickbait/TL;DRs  - “這時代分享一篇文章時,大多數網民只會閱讀十多字的「小編按」,或當一個標題黨”
This is actually interesting and is something I've been thinking about quite a bit lately.  
In a world where people are overloaded with overwhelming amount of information and the media is constantly competing for eyeballs, the only way for people to get their point across is through wise and meticulous choice of words (this is also where the old saying "brevity is the soul of wit" becomes pertinent). If you fall victim to verbosity, or fail to catch people's attention with your first sentence or few words, you'd most likely lose the audience.  I think that's largely the reason clickbait articles are flooding the internet and you can't read any free contents without seeing promoted articles with titles like "You won’t believe how xxx looks like today".  

I have to admit that this is something I do on a daily basis at work too. When I write emails,  I don’t bother discussing/presenting anything at length anymore – emails are only used to address a few actionable items, or set up meetings to chat over the phone or face-to-face. And in the first few sentences of my message I tend to focus on either "what needs to be done", "what is the $$ impact to the company", or both,  with subjects like "xxx - Revenue Opportunities", or even an actual question calling for a discussion. So what I do is like using "clickbait" or "tl;dr" if you will.  I know I'm guilty (not really) for doing this, but with everyone’s time is limited, the last thing I want is for a stakeholder or decision maker to say "okay, let me set this aside and think about it later" which would often get forgotten, but rather "interesting, let’s run with it/discuss it" or "forget it, it’s a waste of time". 

Okay, enough of my blither (pretty ironic too since I just boasted the importance of brevity). I’d be interested to see what others have to say.

本篇文章已被 Pearltea 於 Apr 18 2019, 13:22 編輯過
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阿暪
發表於: Apr 18 2019, 13:09  
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其實希臘人兩千多年前已經知道 - 「我唯一所知的就是我一無所知」, 所知越多, 越覺無知.  相反的就是越是無知的人, 就越覺得自己知得多了  XD.gif


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暗淡了刀光劍影,遠去了鼓角錚鳴
眼前飛揚著一個個鮮活的面容
湮沒了黃塵古道,荒蕪了烽火邊城
歲月啊!你帶不走那一串串熟悉的姓名

興亡誰人定啊!盛衰豈無憑啊!
一頁風雲散啊...變幻了時空
聚散皆是緣啊!離合總關情啊!
擔當生前事啊...何計身後評?

長江有意化作淚,長江有情起歌聲
歷史的天空,閃爍幾顆星
人間一股英雄氣...
在馳騁縱橫...
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Pearltea
發表於: Apr 18 2019, 14:21  
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In general, I'd agree that "the more I learn, the more I realize there's a lot more to learn".
But when it comes to a specific subject matter, I'd have a hard time agreeing 100% with that statement. 
For example, I have very little, if any, knowledge about many things.  Say digital art for example, which I started doing about a year ago.  After hours of practicing I'd say I have a bit of experience on this, so I'm probably somewhere between "None" to little in terms of experience level on the chart, but there was never a point in time where I felt like I was at the highest point of confidence level on this subject as Dunning and Kruger suggested, if that makes sense. However, I do feel more confident now than a year ago in terms of being able to utilize different functions and tools that I never knew was possible when I first started.

相反的就是越是無知的人, 就越覺得自己知得多了"
I'm still wondering if this has anything to do with maturity or personality. There are people out there who simply refuse to think they need to learn more than what they already know, especially when it comes to topics/subjects where the discussions tend to be more subjective than objective, or if there is no easy answer or solutions to the issues. You can't help but wonder why those people are so adamant about themselves being absolutely right and fail to consider any facts and figures that suggest otherwise. And to be honest I am not sure if they would ever be open to learn after establishing their own stance on the topics/issues.


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Caesar
發表於: Apr 24 2019, 10:08  
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QUOTE (阿暪 @ Apr 18 2019, 21:09 )
其實希臘人兩千多年前已經知道 - 「我唯一所知的就是我一無所知」, 所知越多, 越覺無知.  相反的就是越是無知的人, 就越覺得自己知得多了  XD.gif

你已經知道得太多了


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發表於: Apr 25 2019, 01:34  
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QUOTE (Caesar @ Apr 24 2019, 05:08)
QUOTE (阿暪 @ Apr 18 2019, 21:09)
其實希臘人兩千多年前已經知道 - 「我唯一所知的就是我一無所知」, 所知越多, 越覺無知.  相反的就是越是無知的人, 就越覺得自己知得多了  XD.gif

你已經知道得太多了


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willyho
發表於: May 8 2019, 04:30  
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QUOTE (Pearltea @ Apr 18 2019, 22:21 )
In general, I'd agree that "the more I learn, the more I realize there's a lot more to learn".
But when it comes to a specific subject matter, I'd have a hard time agreeing 100% with that statement. 
For example, I have very little, if any, knowledge about many things.  Say digital art for example, which I started doing about a year ago.  After hours of practicing I'd say I have a bit of experience on this, so I'm probably somewhere between "None" to little in terms of experience level on the chart, but there was never a point in time where I felt like I was at the highest point of confidence level on this subject as Dunning and Kruger suggested, if that makes sense. However, I do feel more confident now than a year ago in terms of being able to utilize different functions and tools that I never knew was possible when I first started.

相反的就是越是無知的人, 就越覺得自己知得多了"
I'm still wondering if this has anything to do with maturity or personality. There are people out there who simply refuse to think they need to learn more than what they already know, especially when it comes to topics/subjects where the discussions tend to be more subjective than objective, or if there is no easy answer or solutions to the issues.  You can't help but wonder why those people are so adamant about themselves being absolutely right and fail to consider any facts and figures that suggest otherwise.  And to be honest I am not sure if they would ever be open to learn after establishing their own stance on the topics/issues.

In relation to the second part, I think it's because of the associations made with the phrase "I don't know". Especially when most people want to group with someone who "knows", or at least claims to. It's not so much the data and new evidence not considered, but the anxiety(?) of being wrong. That mental state of knowing that one is wrong could lead to cognitive dissonance. It would take a certain amount of mental gymnastics to reconcile pre-held beliefs and new evidence. 

"相反的就是越是無知的人, 就越覺得自己知得多了"

I disagree slightly

I think it's those who know a little bit more than average about a topic that tend to act as if they know everything.

Example: Reading lots of reader's digests can make one seem knowledgeable at a dinner party. At least in terms of being able to carry a conversation with more depth about a range of authors, genres, era etc. However, this is different from getting an in-depth conversation about a very specific topic.

Say, there's a difference between knowing and knowing the results of a health check. The former merely means going to the GP and get the general understanding. The latter refers to what the results actually mean, especially for the GP. And what inferences can be drawn.

(That's like saying knowing what stocks are in the portfolio, and knowing each and every stock in the portfolio-such as their annual earnings, corporate governance, management turnover, industry sector etc. The latter requires far more intellectual effort, namely in the form of reading through annual reports, talking to the management if possible, understanding current economic climate and how it affects the industry sector etc   
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